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The TECCL Corpus

Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners (the TECCL Corpus)

Version 1.1



Download the TECCL corpus here.

A Stanford Parser version of the TECCL treebank is made available for download here (The accuracy of the parsed version has not been checked. Some people warn of the use of parsers to analyse interlanguage, esp. underchievers', English texts; others have found that novice writers tend to use simple syntax, and therefore parsers work well with learner English texts).


Key information of the TECCL Corpus

Corpus name: Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners (the TECCL corpus) (Version 1.1)

Text contributors: Xue, Xizhe (Romanised pinyin notation of the Chinese word "learner")

Project initiator: Jiajin Xu (the National Research Centre for Foreign Language Education, Beijing Foreign Studies University)

Year of corpus creation: 2015

Formats of the corpus: Two forms of the TECCL corpus, i.e. raw texts and part-of-speech tagged texts, are available. They are stored in two folders, i.e. 01TECCL_RAW and 02TECCL_POS. The POS texts were annotated with the tag set version 7 (C7). (cf: of the CLAWS POS tagger developed at UCREL, Lancaster University, UK.

Citation: Xue, Xizhe. 2015. Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners (The TECCL corpus), Version 1.1. The National Research Centre for Foreign Language Education, Beijing Foreign Studies University.


The TECCL corpus: Its background and highlights

The TECCL corpus contains approximately 10,000 writing samples of Chinese EFL learners, totalling 1,817,472 words (Note: We consider as words all alphanumeric strings, including hyphenated strings, represented by the regular expression [a-zA-Z0-9-]+.). Initially, 10,127 texts were sampled from an online writing and scoring system. 262 blank texts, texts written in Chinese, translated English texts, and duplicated and/or plagiarised texts were removed by hand. As a result, the finalised version of the TECCL corpus consists of 9,865 texts. All the text contributors have agreed to share their texts for future use of academic purposes while they were submitting the texts to the online system. Further anonymisation was committed to keep the possibility of writers' identity disclosure to a minimum. The sampling frame of the corpus was drawn up by Jiajin Xu, and he too undertook all the text cleaning and POS tagging. Liangping Wu, at the early stage of the project, assisted with the text cleaning.

The TECCL corpus ‘figures prominently’ not for its size but its representativeness in the following five aspects.

1)      Unlike other Chinese learner corpora available, the TECCL corpus is more up-to-date as of 2015. The material included was produced between 2011 and 2015. The corpus was compiled to mirror the Chinese EFL learners' English of the time.

2)      The corpus features a wide range of topics or prompts. The rough estimation goes over 1,000 different essay topics.

3)      The writers in the corpus run the gamut from elementary school to postgraduate students, undergraduates being the overwhelming majority. The number of so-called 985/211 and non-985/211 universities to a large extent corresponds to the actual proportion of Chinese universities.

4)      The geographical spread of the writers in the TECCL corpus is by far the widest of all Chinese EFL learners' English corpora. The corpus encompasses text material from 32 provinces, and (autonomous) regions, including Hong Kong and Taiwan.

5)      In stark contrast to other Chinese EFL learners' English corpora, the TECCL corpus comprises both texts written in class and in testing context under (time) pressure and texts written after class. The corpus even takes in some collaborative writing samples. Most previous Chinese EFL learners' English corpora are compositions produced in high-stakes standardised English tests, such as CET-4/6, TEM4/8 and PETS.


A known problem with text typography

Chinese learners have a notorious habit of typing words immediately after the commas and full stops without a space. This problem of spacing is not corrected in the final version of the corpus. Fortunately, this does not affect the computation of word tokens or the tagging of parts of speech. Users of the corpus can add a white space after the punctuations, if necessary.



The TECCL corpus can be downloaded for personal research, but not be used for any form of commercial purposes.



Please feel free to report any problems with the texts to

More information about the corpus is available at the official site of the Corpus Research Group, National Research Centre for Foreign Language Education, Beijing Foreign Studies University,

Web-based concordancing of the TECCL corpus is enabled at BFSU CQPweb,










  语料版本:TECCL语料库以“生语料”和“词性赋码语料”2种格式发布,分别对应01TECCL_RAW、02TECCL_POS 2个文件夹。词性赋码采用CLAWS赋码器,所用码集为C7(详见。

  引文格式:薛熙哲,2015,中国学生万篇英语作文语料库(V1.1)(Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners, Version 1.1,简称The TECCL corpus)。




















  TECCL语料库另部署于BFSU CQPweb,诸位可访问http://,在线检索TECCL语料库。


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